Value types considered harmful (part 2)

25 February 2018

This post is part of a series on value types, particularly in the C# language, and why some people consider defining your own value types not useful or even dangerous. In the last post, we presented a distinction between value types, reference types and raw pointers, and gave a “performance” argument in favor of value types. In this post, we’ll critically evaluate that argument and provide another.

Against the “performance” argument for value types

Before we argued that the reason to use value types is essentially to save processor cycles. This optimization, however, is not always applied to value type instances, but a specific set of conditions must apply in order for the instance to be eligible for stack allocation:

  1. The instance has to be a local variable, or a field of another value type instance.

  2. Anonymous functions, iterator blocks or the `await` operator must not have a closure over the local variable.

  3. The instance will be “boxed” (i.e. passed by reference).

  4. The value type has reference type fields.

Let’s go through each of this points in some more detail:

1. The instance has to be a local variable.

Fields of reference type instances will be allocated on the heap with the rest of the instance value.

2. Anonymous functions, iterator blocks or the `await` operator must not have a closure over the local variable.

The main reason for this is conceptual: changes to state “closed over” that occur within the anonymous function should be observable from the piece of executable code they are defined in. The second reason has to do with how these are implemented: anonymous classes that hold the local state are defined in-place in the compiled IL and instantiated in such a way to be referenced by the anonymous block. The reason why this applies to iterator and async blocks is due to how these are implemented in turn: essentially the method the `foreach` and `await` keywords occur in are broken up into different executable blocks controlled by a state machine. )(The details of this implementation are wonderfully complex (JavaScript transpilers such as Babel shim ES6 generator functions similarly), and it is worth looking at one simple example of these at least once in a life time.)

3. The instance will be “boxed” (i.e. passed by reference).

This occurs, for example, whenever you use a nullable value type, whenever you pass the instance by reference (via the `ref` or `out` operators) and whatever causes the instance to be cast to an interface type.

4. The value type has reference type fields.

This is because the reference type itself needs to be kept track of by the garbage collector (for reasons we addressed in part 1 of this series). The value type instance becomes the owner of a reference to this value, so the reference can only become unreachable when the value type instance becomes unreachable, so the garbage collector needs to ensure it is no longer reachable in turn.

Okay, basically most of the time the choice of defining a type as a value type rather than reference type will bring no performance advantage whatsoever (it is also an optimization you can’t rely on.) This is a point against the argument for value types we presented in the last post: that value types should be used due to their performance reasons. When the conditions for applicability of the optimization are draconic, and the optimization itself has a very limited effect on performance in most cases, maybe not considering the use of value types by default is the correct choice. Other general considerations include considering how many copies of the type value your program is going to produce, as the whole value is copied every time unlike with reference types where only a new reference is created (see also these links.)

The ultimate argument for value types

The ultimate argument for the use of value types has to do with their equality and copy semantics: it is whenever instances of the type will represent something that by its nature should be considered a copy of the same value, rather than a shared instance. In this sense, using reference types only makes sense when the type is intended to be housing independently observable state (or behavior that depends on such state): when, for example, the type is a store of sorts modeling part of a user or API session that needs to be observed from various places of the application, so they can all independently react to changes in the state of the instance.

This implies that the bias towards defaulting to reference types is the wrong way around: types should be by default value types until the need for them to be treated as sharable reference arises from a positive type design decision …

The ultimate argument against value types

… Which is also the ultimate argument against their use.

Unlike what is perhaps a popular image of a programmer, programming is meant to be a straightforward process for 90% of cases. Most of us use high level languages exclusively, and are far more concerned with the human understandability of our software than with dubious micro-optimizations. In projects where the user of value types is generally positively encouraged, the programmer is by default incurring in a higher cognitive load than they would if they just defaulted to using reference types for everything, even those types for which semantically it would make sense to use a value type. Any time another reader reviews the code, they have to consider whether the author’s choice of defining a value type is sound enough or a reference type would be preferable. This does not occur where all types are defined as reference types.

This is also the reason why library frameworks as well as the limitations imposed on developers by specific platforms are good: they limit what you can (or should) do and in doing so provide a guide to implementing your ideas. Limits are good to the exercise of creativity, even when they are artificial and effectively can be violated.


In this post we carried our discussion of value types further, argued against the argument proposed in the last post, and finally presented what is both the strongest argument for and against value types at the same time. This concludes this series, for the moment.

If you read this conclusion as I do, it can be a disappointing result. Of course it is more crucial to us as professional developers that others may easily understand how our software works, before we become concerned with performance.

What is unclear is whether encouraging the use of value types represent an additional and harmful preoccupation, or instead a normal part of explicit and well expressed type design.

Further reading